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Race: White Based on this official offender page. Location: Illinois, Offense date: , Statute: Location: North Carolina, Offense date: , Statute: Location: Florida, Offense date: , Statute: Location: Ohio, Statute: Statute: Location: Texas, Offense date: , Statute: - Based on this official offender page. Race: Black Based on this official offender page. Location: Washington, Offense date: , Statute: 9A.

Location: Kentucky, Offense date: , Statute: Location: New York, Offense date: , Statute: Location: Wisconsin, Offense date: , Statute: Offense date: , Statute: In early January , Dominic tried to commit suicide. The parole officers demanded that she bring Dominic from the car into the office so that he could sign the papers. After a stressful few minutes, a parole officer came out and told Grace that she could take Dominic to the hospital. Laws that place youth offenders on sex offender registries expose them to vigilante attacks and are at odds with existing state laws that protect the confidentiality of juvenile records.

Among the cases examined for this report, 52 percent youth offenders experienced violence or threats of violence against themselves or family members that they directly attributed to their registration. Family photos of two boys at ages 10 and 8 now adults in their late twenties who were subject to sex offender registration for offenses committed at ages 12 and Individuals aware of their registration have thrown molotov cocktails through the window of the family home, as well as threatened, insulted, and shouted profanities at all members of the family. Weatherford, Texas, May 1, Other registrants experienced harassment as a result of their registration status.

They thought I was not a virgin. I had to run inside. I wish I could kill you! Registration laws can have a severe impact on the families of registrants. Young people exiting custody in the juvenile justice system or adult prisons are often discharged back to families already struggling with domestic violence, substance abuse, mental health issues, unemployment, and poverty. Children face unemployment, school enrollment challenges, and sometimes homelessness upon release. The impact may be more pronounced for families with children subject to sex offender registration requirements.

Many registrants and family members told Human Rights Watch about the stresses placed on families as a result of registration. These include the following examples:. Families also suffer as a result of the public stigma associated with the registration status of their loved one. Parents of registrants reported experiencing increased financial burdens from the moment their child was placed on the registry.

Some family members of registrants lost their jobs as a result of the sex offender registration status of their family member. I lost my job when the school district found out that I had a young child on the registry. The fees associated with registration can be prohibitively high for a young person.

These expenses often fall on the family, especially when the individual on the registry is a dependent child. Jackson D. I was too young to work. He still lives with his mother. He struggles to keep jobs to help his mother prevent the house from going into foreclosure. The effects of registration can touch later generations of children as well. Many of the individuals we spoke with were placed on the registry as children but are now married with children of their own. Offender registration laws can have especially harmful impacts on the children of registrants.

Additionally, 59 percent reported that other children at school treated them differently when it was discovered that they had a parent on the registry. Most youth offender registrants with children we spoke with had very young children who had not yet attained school age. We were able, however, to interview a few school-age children with a parent on the registry. Hunter E.

Kentucky Criminal Records

Mark O. A year-old child, Cindy D. In Delaware, where they live, a child under 14 years of age cannot legally give consent. We asked both non-registered and registered parents to describe ways that their children have been directly affected by sex offender registration laws. Individuals placed on the registry for offenses committed over a decade ago, when they were children, cannot even pick up their own children at school. Jerry M. I want to be involved in their lives but I also want them to be able to live free to be who they are without having to carry such a burden.

Situation involving sexual assault halts Halloween for some in Franklin County

One girl with a father on the sex offender registry wrote Human Rights Watch a letter about her life as a child of a registered sex offender. Local lawmakers have passed municipal ordinances prohibiting individuals on sex offender registries from residing or traveling within close proximity to places where children commonly congregate. Given the large number of parks, schools, daycare centers, and playgrounds in some cities, there can be very few places where sex offenders can live. In one study, adult registrants cited difficulties in finding housing and being forced to move as the most common problems resulting from their registrant status.

Studies show that adolescents and young adults on sex offender registries have an even harder time securing housing than older adults on registries. Aaron I. They keep us homeless. I am banned from living in a homeless shelter. It is impossible to meet these expectations. Currently I am homeless … for something that happened when I was 12 years old.

The majority of parents with a child on the registry interviewed by Human Rights Watch reported having trouble providing shelter for their family due to residency restrictions requiring the child registrant to live a certain distance from schools, parks, playgrounds, daycare centers, or bus stops. And once they are living on their own, registrants face similar challenges in procuring housing.

Public housing authorities can also evict the family of a child on the sex offender registry. The federal Office of Housing and Urban Development allows local housing authorities to terminate assistance to an entire family if any member of the household is arrested or adjudicated delinquent of certain sex offenses.

Because state registration, notification, and residency restrictions often stipulate that offenders may not live in or near the homes of victims, housing issues can become extremely complicated when the victim of a youth offender registrant is a sibling. In these instances, parents are faced with a horrible choice between which of their children to keep in the home.

Some parents are forced to place a child with a relative or family friend, or to place a child in the care of the state. Lucas W. Lucas was given five years deferred adjudication for the sexual offense. Later, he and Emma married.

Child-on-Child Sexual Violence in the United States

But Lucas was subsequently arrested twice for violations of probation. In , Lucas was arrested for failure to register and subsequently sentenced to 10 years in prison. While incarcerated, his wife gave birth to their daughter.

Franklin County Alternatives to Incarceration (ATI) Programs - NY DCJS

In , Lucas was finally released from prison to a halfway house where he was to remain until he could find proper housing. At the age of 14, Lewis A. Upon his release, Lewis was made a ward of the state and placed in foster care because his Dad said he could not manage him. At the age of 18, he no longer qualified for foster care and was on his own. Upon release from foster care, Lewis contacted Isabella D. When Human Rights Watch first interviewed Lewis, he was just 18 years old and had spent nearly nine months homeless in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

He survived the previous winter by living in an abandoned building. The voucher, through Michigan Rehabilitation Services, helped with the rent, but it took months to find an apartment that would 1 accept the voucher and 2 rent to a registered sex offender. As the voucher ran out they had to apply for an extension to get more time to look for housing. Finally in August , Lewis moved into his own apartment. He also enrolled in an adult program and was working towards getting his GED. Lewis was supposed to spend Thanksgiving with Isabella and her family, but he decided to spend the weekend with his father.

Immediately after the holiday, Lewis was arrested for vandalizing a cemetery with some older men. In December , Lewis pled guilty to the vandalism charge and has since served his time. But he still sits in jail. As a registered sex offender, Lewis cannot be released from jail until he has a permanent address.

Lewis cannot live in public assisted housing because he is a registered sex offender. Isabella has tried to help get Lewis shelter and made referrals to shelters and other agencies. She recently contacted agencies that assist individuals with mental disabilities and was told that all referrals must come from the community mental health center.

The community mental health center will not consider making a referral until it can conduct intake, i. Isabella and the other teacher still visit Lewis every week in jail. Even though Michigan law does not subject juveniles adjudicated as young as Lewis to public notification, it is very difficult for him to live day-to-day.

Essentially, these restrictions ban registrants from passing through certain areas of the city. Interviewees reported having to map out routes before traveling anywhere. For example, Blake G.

Franklin County

Blake was required to register as a sex offender in the new state. The county where Blake and his family moved to also had stringent residency and zoning restrictions. I can be arrested if I am walking anywhere near a school or park. There are also strict restrictions on the presence of registrants near bus stops.

Bus stops are plentiful and not well-defined. In rural areas, school bus stops are not marked or labeled and are often at the end of a driveway or any designated location where the school bus picks up a child. In Orange County, Florida, where the law prohibits a registered sex offender from residing within 2, feet of a school bus stop, day care center, park, or school, researchers mapped residential parcels of land and found that Because they live with their parents or other adult caregivers, children and very young adults have little control over where they live.

States differ as to which offenses trigger registration, and state systems do a very poor job of working together to ensure registrants who travel are treated fairly. For example, Elijah B. When he moved to Texas, he transferred his registration from Flint, Michigan to Houston. A few years later, Elijah met his wife. Both were working and they lived together in a new apartment. Elijah explained to Human Rights Watch,. However, all too often state registration systems treat individuals convicted of sexual offenses in other states differently from individuals convicted of the same offenses within the state.

However, Alabama law would require a Florida resident who committed the same crime to register as a sex offender if he moves to Alabama. Children can find their access to education curtailed even before they begin registering. Many children convicted of sexual offenses are expelled from public school. Crimes committed on school grounds can have immediate consequences in many states. For example, in Delaware, if police find probable cause to believe a child committed a crime at school, the student must be immediately suspended and referred to alternative services.

Among the youth offender registrants whose cases were examined for this report, a majority Others had difficulties in school because of the public nature of their registration status. They taped them all over the school. By then it was too late and I was terrified everyone would find out I was a registered sex offender. I dropped out but later got my GED. Several individuals we spoke with believe this has negatively affected their college admissions.

The most commonly reported consequence of registration for adult sex offenders is difficulty finding and maintaining employment. Individuals we interviewed said that their registration status for offenses committed as children decades ago continues to limit their job opportunities. Certain institutions, including public schools, child care centers, and nursing homes, are legally required to investigate and obtain criminal histories of all applicants for professional or certified licensed positions.

Some states implement blanket laws to prevent registered sex offenders from obtaining certain types of employment or volunteer positions. Maya also spent nearly four years at a juvenile prison. Being part of the juvenile justice system, made me determined to prove that with determination, love, and a little support, productive citizens can emerge.

Many girls in there were forced into prostitution by a parent. Upon release from prison, Maya persevered and overcame the barriers inherent in being on the registry to graduate from high school, obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree in both social work and comparative religion, and earn a Masters in Social Work MSW degree. Despite being 16 years removed from her only arrest and despite having been taken off the registry, the stigma remains.

Maya is hopeful that she will one day complete an internship, become a licensed social worker, and realize her dream of helping homeless individuals. Elijah B. I accumulate about 20 W-2 forms at the end of each year. I have to support my wife and kids. I estimate that between January to April I have applied for positions.

Many states require sex offenders to pay a one-time initial registration fee. A registrant must keep the registration current in each jurisdiction where the offender resides, is an employee, or is a student, by appearing in-person at least once a year. Certain fees and costs related to registration can be assessed at each appearance. States often impose additional costs on registrants, some of which are imposed on all persons convicted of offenses of a particular severity such as all felons in the state. It would be hard for an individual who works a full-time job to be able to manage these types of fees and the demands of registering in general.

James O. He spent 27 years and 8 months in prison, primarily at Angola State Penitentiary. He was released from prison at the age of 44, after the Supreme Court ruled in Graham v. Florida that the sentence of life without parole was unconstitutional for juveniles convicted of non-homicide offenses. James was required to register as a sex offender within three days of release from prison. He was also required to:. Most jobs would not pay you within two weeks of starting the job. It would be difficult for an individual who was on the outside with a decent job to scrape together these fees.

Oklahoma takes a public health approach to sex offenders in the juvenile justice system that could serve as a model for other states considering alternative approaches to youth sex offender registration. While Oklahoma does not currently take the same approach to youth offenders sentenced in the criminal court system, there is no reason in principle why it could not do so.

Most youth sex offenders in Oklahoma are treated differently than adults. The system includes the following features:. Public Notification— The adult registry in Oklahoma is public and fully accessible online. The juvenile registry is confidential and only accessible by law enforcement officials. Offenses— Children registering based on a criminal conviction in adult court are subject to the same automatic offense-based registration system that applies to adults.

Children adjudicated delinquent of a sex offense, however, can be placed on the registry only after an individualized assessment of the risk they may pose. Expiration— Juvenile registration expires at age A child can be rolled over to the adult registry, but this requires a separate petition, hearing, and judicial determination. In Oklahoma, before a child found guilty in the juvenile system of a registerable sex offense is placed on the registry, his or her case must be evaluated using a three-step process.


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First, the local prosecutor must make a determination that the child in question, even after completing treatment, still poses a significant risk of reoffending sexually. If so, the prosecutor files an application to have the court require the child to register as a sex offender upon release from custody. The filing of this application triggers phase two of the process, in which the child must undergo evaluation by a panel of two mental health professionals who prepare a report for the court recommending for or against registration.

Over the first 10 years that the sex offender registry existed in Oklahoma, only 10 youth offenders adjudicated delinquent were required to register, according to the Oklahoma Office of Juvenile Affairs. Chaffin also explained,. Federal law mandates that any state that does not meet the requirements of the Adam Walsh Act will receive up to a 10 percent reduction in federal grant money.

Judge sentences 'serial sexual predator' to 35 years for sedating toddler with cough medicine

Nearly all jurisdictions have made failure to register a criminal offense punishable by fines and imprisonment. In many states, the sentence for a single offense of failure to register can be as long as 10 years in prison, and in two states—Louisiana and Nebraska—the sentence for a second failure-to-register conviction is 20 years imprisonment. Our research suggests that most youth offenders do not understand the many rules incumbent on registrants or the full implications of failing to comply with all of the rules. In many cases, they do not even know that a serious criminal sentence is hanging over their heads should they fail to comply with every particular.

As noted above, registrants begin their sex offender registration after release from detention, jail, or prison. Over 84 percent of the youth offenders we interviewed were still age 17 or younger at release. Connor S. They had paperwork from when I was 13 where I acknowledged that I understood that condition. To date, no study has examined failure to register from the perspective of individuals placed on the registry for offenses committed as children. Our interviews indicate that it may be particularly difficult for youth offenders to meet all registration requirements, for reasons linked to their youth and immaturity as well as the onerous nature of the requirements.

Studies of the failure-to-register offense among all offenders adults and children emphasize the difficulty of maintaining registration, noting the sheer volume of obligations and the constant vigilance required of registrants to stay in compliance. Many of the young people interviewed for this report who were convicted of failure to register were unable to afford registration fees, obtain a proper residence, or otherwise comply with requirements to obtain identification.

All states require individuals on the sex offender registry to carry some form of additional identification, and they can be asked, by law enforcement, to produce this identification at any time. Jayden C. Human Rights Watch met year-old Jayden C. Identification card that must be updated yearly and carried at all times by registered sex offenders in Oklahoma. Registrants are required to renew the license or ID card annually. As a teenager living in Oklahoma, Nathaniel H. The clerk threw my license and told me to get out of the store.

A woman standing behind me looked at my license as she picked it up off the floor. She handed it back to me with a look of disgust on her face. The serious sentences imposed on youth offenders for failure—to-register crimes appear disproportionate to the offenses, given that their youth and immaturity can make it exceptionally difficult for them to comply with registration laws. It is unclear whether prosecutions for failure to register are having the desired effect of deterring subsequent sex crimes. Four published studies have examined the relationship between failure to register and sex-offense recidivism.

Human Rights Watch was not able to find any studies on the relationship between failure to register and sex offense recidivism among youth sex offenders, but there is no reason to think one would find a stronger correlation in the youth offender population than in the overall offender population. Given that existing research finds very low rates of sex offense recidivism among youth sex offenders, neither public safety nor crime deterrence appears to justify their incarceration for failure-to-register crimes.

Even if one thinks registration is appropriate for some youth sex offenders, there is strong reason to question whether offenders under age 18 should be subjected to criminal prosecution for failure to register. At times, the juvenile or adult court proceedings that result in convictions for sexual offenses are marred by due process failings, prompting additional questions about the fairness of subjecting youth sex offenders to registration. Children accused of any type of offense not only sexual offenses are particularly vulnerable during criminal proceedings.

Children and adolescents are less mature than adults and have less life experience on which to draw, and this makes understanding the court process, the charges, and the consequences of a plea more difficult. A photograph of Ethan A. At the age of 10, Ethan and his younger brother went to live with their father and stepmother in Amarillo. In , when Ethan was 11, his step-mother accused Ethan of molesting his 3-month-old sister and of touching the genitals of his younger brother.

He was sentenced to serve six years and four months in Texas juvenile detention. After three years, Ethan was released on juvenile probation to the custody of his mother and required to register as a sex offender. He had his first photograph taken for the registry in , at the age of As a teenager, Ethan was anxious to get a job so he could help his mother pay the bills. Even though Ethan was not a convicted felon, employers refused to hire him when he disclosed that he was on the sex offender registry.

Finally things started to look up for Ethan. In , at age 22, he had a girlfriend and got a job working in an auto body shop. A few months after getting fired, in August , Ethan went for his yearly registration verification and was arrested on the spot for failing to report that he had been fired from his job. He sat for one year in jail awaiting trial. On August 5, , he was found guilty of failure to register and sentenced to three years in prison.

In Texas and most states, registered sex offenders may be prosecuted if they fail to register, fail to verify registration information, or fail to provide notice of change of address or place of employment. Ethan was immediately arrested, convicted, and sentenced to three years in prison for this felony offense. While in prison, Ethan has persevered. Upon release, Ethan will be placed on the highest level of adult parole for 10 years and required to resume his sex offender registration until In several cases investigated by Human Rights Watch, children often with little legal advice agreed to plead guilty to a sex offense without being informed of the registration requirements they would be subject to for years or decades thereafter.

For example, in , Mason T. After completing two years of therapy and probation, at the age of 14, Mason was informed that he had to register as a sex offender for 10 years. This news shocked both Mason and his mother. The family was not told before entering the plea that Mason would be required to register as a sex offender.

It is common practice in the US criminal justice system for attorneys and judges to sometimes use the threat of trial and long sentences to obtain a plea. If you say guilty you can go home on probation. The vast majority of youth sex offenders interviewed for this report pled guilty people, or In only The federal Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act SORNA expanded the number of youth sex offenders subject to registration by adding more nonviolent, lower-risk offenders to the federal registry.

SORNA also opened the door to the retroactive application of registration requirements to individuals convicted of sex offenses whether in juvenile or criminal court proceedings before the registration laws went into effect. Of the youth sex offenders interviewed for this report, 57 19 percent were subject to registration requirements imposed retroactively after their convictions. Some of these individuals had completed the terms of their parole and juvenile or adult probation, started families, and made lives for themselves.

Due to the changes wrought by SORNA, others who had shown no risk of reoffending were now considered high-risk offenders because of a crime that occurred decades ago. Some pled guilty to crimes and lived for a time without being subject to registration, only to learn much later that they had agreed to terms which now trigger harsh consequences. While records of juvenile delinquency are normally kept confidential, the retroactive application of SORNA requires individuals who previously pled to acts of juvenile delinquency— and who did so with the expectation that their adjudication would remain confidential— to publicly expose that information to friends, family, colleagues, and neighbors.

Some, had they known that they would years later be subject to registration requirements, might not have pled to the charges at all. As of , all but one appellate district in the United States allowed for the retroactive application of registration requirements to past convictions or adjudications. The one exception is the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

In the case of U. Juvenile Male , the court found that the retroactive application of SORNA to juvenile adjudications was unconstitutional.

Ongoing Economic Consequences

Juveniles adjudicated delinquent of sexual offenses are less protected from accepting a plea without being informed of registration requirements than children subject to the jurisdiction of adult courts. Many courts have found that a defendant charged as an adult must know the collateral consequences of entering a plea to a criminal offense, such as registration, community notification, and residency requirements.

International human rights law requires all governments to protect people within their jurisdiction from violence, including by deterring crimes such as sex offenses.

Thus, in these six countries there are often no public notification or residency requirements and the inclusion of youth offenders is heavily circumscribed. The important duty of government to protect persons from harm has undoubtedly inspired the creation of sex offender registration schemes in the United States. However, the onerous nature of the schemes and their specific application to youth offenders raise serious questions under human rights law.

International law recognizes that juvenile offenders require special protection. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR , to which the United States became a party in , specifically acknowledges the need for special treatment of children in the criminal justice system and emphasizes the importance of their rehabilitation.

Those in favor of youth sex offender registration often argue that the requirements—whether registration alone, or registration in combination with community notification and residency restrictions—are distinguishable from criminal punishment. Since registration is imposed only after a child completes his or her criminal sentence, they argue, it is at most a collateral consequence of punishment and as such is distinct from the original punishment.

In the United States, many sex offender registration laws at both the state and federal levels treat youth offenders no differently from adults. This is true of youth offenders subject to the jurisdiction of adult courts, but also of many children adjudicated delinquent in juvenile courts. When children and adults are subjected to exactly the same procedures and laws, the United States violates provisions of the ICCPR requiring special measures for children.

In order to comply with its obligations under international human rights law, the United States should abolish sex offender registration schemes that are not specifically tailored to address the situation of youth offenders. Recent cases in the US Supreme Court raise serious questions under US constitutional law about any scheme in which the differences between youth and adults are not taken into account.

We see no justification for taking a different course here. Other human rights of children threatened by youth sex offender registration include the rights to protection from harm, family unity, education, health and well-being, and freedom of movement. None of these rights are absolute. But laws that infringe upon these rights must be necessary to serve a legitimate public interest, the relationship between the interest and the means chosen to advance it must be a close one, and the laws must be the least restrictive possible.

Some of the most fundamental rights of children and adults who are former youth offenders are put at risk by sex offender registration laws. Therefore, the infringements on rights imposed by these laws appear to be disproportionate to their purpose. The US is not alone in implementing registration systems for sex offenders. At least six other countries Australia, Canada, France, Ireland, South Africa, United Kingdom have sex offender registries, either for perpetrators of all sex offenses or only offenses in which the victim was a child, and others are contemplating establishing registries.

Sex offender registries in other countries have come under judicial challenge, and courts have found the more circumscribed registration requirements compatible with protection for human rights, only in so far as each scheme strikes the appropriate balance between the rights of the individual on a register and the public safety interest that the registries are designed to meet. The US sex offender registration schemes fail to meet these standards. The Court said,. The criteria the European Court set out was relied on by the UK Supreme Court to strike down a provision in UK law requiring lifetime registration for a person convicted of an offense carrying a sentence of 30 months or more imprisonment.

Two categories of children suffer harm as a result of sexual offenses and the sex offender registration laws described in this report. The most obvious category is the child victims of sexual assault, who have rights to protection from harm and to redress for the harms they have suffered. However, youth sex offenders are also entitled to protection from harm, including from vigilante violence.

Each of these treaties prohibits cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment [] and includes requirements that the state act to prevent acts of violence directed at anyone—adults and children—committed by private actors. Protection from violence, moreover, is an essential component in securing other human rights including the right to physical integrity.

Additionally, the harassment and violence some youth offenders endure as a result of state sex offender registries and related policies may end up depriving them of their right to live together with their family, or to an education on equal terms with their peers. Such harassment and violence may also have serious mental health consequences and infringe upon the right of youth to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health.

Even in instances in which registration is not explicitly combined with community notification requirements, the reproduction of such records by public and private actors in a variety of ways and locations—particularly in our electronic age—makes it nearly impossible for the heightened privacy rights of children to be respected. Some youth offenders in the US have challenged mandatory registration and community notification laws on the basis that those laws open their records to public view, whereas existing law has generally permitted children to keep their juvenile records confidential or have them expunged.

The right to family unity finds articulation in numerous human rights treaties. Cases outlined in this report raise questions about whether government is striking the right balance even in these cases. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has a right to education, to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of their country, and to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being, including housing. When children are unable to attend school because they are banned from going near or entering school buildings, or when other restrictions on their residency or freedom of movement make it impossible for them to maintain a home and thus the stability to attend school, their access to education is curtailed.

State and local laws often ban a registered youth offender from working anywhere near children—so registered teens cannot seek jobs at the local mall, fast food restaurants, camps, and recreational centers. We are deeply grateful to the Soros Open Society Foundation for their generous support and encouragement. We further thank the Defender Association of Philadelphia for providing office space and support for Nicole Pittman.

Brian Root, quantitative analyst in the US Program, helped analyze the data and assess the impact of the laws on registrants. Antonio Ginatta, US Program advocacy director, helped provide a consistent and clear message for the report. Marc Chaffin, expert on child sexual offending behavior and professor of pediatrics at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, provided continuous encouragement and support and reviewed and commented on parts of the manuscript.

Consultants Alisa Klein and Joan Tabachnick; staff at the Juvenile Division of the Ohio Public Defender; and staff at the Juvenile Law Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania lent support and expertise and made specific suggestions for the recommendations section of the report. We are deeply grateful to all the individuals directly impacted by sex offender registration and notification laws and their families who shared their experiences for this report. Many of these individuals courageously shared their deeply personal and often traumatic experiences of growing up on the registry for the first time, despite the fear of repercussions or further stigmatization.

Special thanks to the courageous experts who have been spent decades providing valuable, robust, and rigorous scientific data on child sexual offending behavior and the effect of US legal sexual offender policies on youth. These include, but are not limited to: Dr. Robert Prentky, professor and director of graduate training in forensic psychology at Farleigh Dickinson University; Dr. Timothy Foley, forensic evaluator and psychologist; Franklin E.

Zimring, William G. This report is dedicated to the memory of Mary Duval, who passed away after battling cancer on June 19, Mary was a dedicated mother and activist, and CEO of www. This helps the Court in maintaining their docket and assists in reducing the number of days the offender is held in jail. Once the Pre-sentence Investigation is complete, it is to be delivered to the Court on the Friday before the week the case is scheduled for sentencing.

The Probation Officer who is assigned to be present on disposition day will also have a copy of the PSI.