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The lives of Alaskans were forever changed by the experience of war, and the history of that dramatic era is still being written. The selected bibliography that follows is divided into twelve parts to aid student researchers in selecting topics:. The articles cited were selected for their relevance to a specific theme and can be found with some exceptions in Alaskan periodicals. The bibliography is not meant to be comprehensive, but is instead intended as a gateway to further research. The individual museums and libraries are organized by city. Naval gunboat escorting the convoy, on the Yangtze River in Three people were killed in the attack and 11 seriously injured when Japanese planes fired on life boats and survivors on shore.

Northern Defense With increasing hostilities in China the U. Government became concerned about the possibility of attack from across the Pacific.

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Alaska, the largest and least fortified of the three, soon saw the construction of naval bases at Sitka, Dutch Harbor, and Kodiak. For many decades following the War, the prevailing understanding about the Japanese Aleutian operation was that it served as a mere diversionary measure from their Midway operation. Recent research, however, concludes that the Japanese had a broader and longer term strategy to establish and expand an eastern defensive perimeter. In response, U.

In addition, the occupation was a significant propaganda victory for the Japanese—the affront could not go unanswered. Pilots and ground troops soon realized they were facing a second enemy, Mother Nature. Weather along the Aleutian chain is some of the worst in the world, with dense fogs, violent seas, and fierce wind storms called williwaws. Aircraft lacking accurate navigational devices or consistent radio contact crashed into mountains, each other, the sea—simply finding the enemy was a life-and-death struggle.

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For soldiers in the Aleutians, contact with the enemy was infrequent and fleeting, but the weather was a perpetual adversary. Aleut Evacuation Forty-two Aleuts living on the island of Attu and two Navy weather observers on Kiska were taken prisoner by the Japanese and sent to Japan where 17 died. In June and July , the U. They were taken by a military transport ship in cramped conditions to abandoned canneries and mining camps in Southeast Alaska.

Nearly a hundred died in the horrible conditions of these camps. During their absence, the U. Japanese Internment Under an emergency measure in effect in the western United States, Alaskans of Japanese descent were shipped to internment camps in the Lower The fear of sudden attack also led to censorship of the media, food rationing, and obligatory blackouts in coastal areas. As part of the Lend-Lease program over 8, U.

Wartime Construction Wartime construction brought major changes in transportation and communication with the outside world and within Alaska. Until passengers and freight arrived in Alaska two ways—by boat or plane.


One of the biggest feats of the war time construction program was the construction of the Alaska Canada Military Highway, a 1,mile wilderness highway which was completed in less than nine months. Other construction included telephone lines, oil pipelines, railways, and roughly military installations throughout Alaska. Population Boom As a result of the War thousands of men and women moved to the sparsely populated territory, and many stayed. In , just over 72, people called Alaska home. By , the population nearly doubled to , Anchorage saw its population balloon from 3, to 47,, while Fairbanks grew from 4, to nearly 20, While many military bases closed after the War some stayed open and even grew.

The military population, which was about in increased to about 22, in After nineteen days of fighting, the beleaguered Japanese soldiers launched a final banzai charge in an attempt to break through the American line. When the battle ended, only 29 prisoners remained of a Japanese force of roughly 2, Three months later the drama at Attu was matched by an equally dramatic anticlimax. Foul weather had delayed Allied attempts to retake Kiska, and when U.

As the guns fell silent in the Aleutians, many Army and Navy facilities were closed, though fighting in the Pacific and in Europe continued for another two years. These sites include former Army and Navy bases, Aleutian battlefields, airfields, and an area on Kiska Island once occupied by the Japanese. The purpose of the NHA includes educating the public about the history of the Aleut people, and the role of the Aleut people and the Aleutian Islands in the defense of the U. In December , President George H. All of the Alaska sites are on lands managed by the U.

Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Park Service and U. Similar foundation documents are being produced for the Hawaii and California units. The document can be viewed and downloaded by visiting alaskamaritime.

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Alaska at War. Aurora Films. Produced by Laurence Goldin. Written by Bradford Matsen and Laurence Goldin. Alaska Geographic. Fairbanks , vol. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, World War II in Alaska , vol. Antonson, Joan M. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, Chandonnet, Fern, ed. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, Cohen, Stan. Altona, Manitoba: D.

Friesen and Sons, Anchorage: Anchorage Museum of History and Art, Garfield, Brian. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, Hays, Otis E. Lawler, Pat. Morison, Samuel Eliot. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. Naske, Claus-M. Alaska: A History of the 49th State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, The Aleutians , vol.

Kodiak, Island of Change , vol. Prepared by the students of Unalaska High School. Unalaska: Unalaska High School, The Aleutians Campaign, June August They Bloody Aleutians. Edmonds, Alberta: Alaska Northwest Publishing, Denfeld, Colt D. Anchorage: U. Army Corps of Engineers, Ellis, Dan. Lorell, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands.

Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, Morgan, Lael. Rearden, Jim. Forgotten Warriors of the Aleutian Campaign. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co. Directed by Tom Putnam. Report from the Aleutians. Directed by John Huston. Army Pictorial Service. Burbank: Viking Video Classics, Army Signal Corps, Rourke, Norman E. Shippenburg: Burd Street Press, Spennemann, Dirk H. National Park Service, Spennemann, Clemens, and Kozlowski. Alaska Park Science. Anchorage: National Park Service.

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June Seiple, Samantha. New York: Scholastic Reference, Webber, Bert. The tiled roof of her house has been broken several times by police. Construction work on the main plant is under way. Pujali constantly reverberates with the deafening sound of pile drivers. Besides the work on the plant, areas are being cleared for fly ash ponds. The four brickfields in the area have been affected. Why can't we be given alternate land sites instead? Her house is rattled by the sound of the machines that work day and night, but she refuses to move out.

The villagers also fear two old temples will be pulled down. One of the shrines is a Shiva temple and the other is a year-old Chinese temple built by Achi Jong, a Chinese trader who set up a flourishing business in Calcutta. The village Achipur is named after the trader and the temple is the site of an annual, month-long winter fair, which is attended by several Chinese from Calcutta.

GBSC members point out that even a stipulation requiring power plants to be located at least metres away from a river has been ignored. In fact, the proposed plant uses the Hooghly river as its boundary. However, the villagers have not been cowed down. Some of them, misled by the air of uncertainty, accepted the plant as fait accompli and sold their land title deeds to the numerous agents who showed up. But the GBSC stands firm in its resolve to not move.

Even the CPM panchayat pradhan, Basudev Das, who once actively stifled opposition to the project, is dissatisfied with the rehabilitation colony. Das is also upset that most of the labourers employed on the project are brought from outside and locals are not engaged as promised. But what greatly upset the villagers was their exclusion from the May 30 panchayat elections.

Most of the villages in the two gram panchayat areas were declared notified and no elections were held.

"Power" to the people irks Bengal villagers

Villagers are not only supposed to be empowered to decide their development priorities but they are also supposed to determine how their resources are used. The best way to sabotage this power is not to give us voting rights. I wonder how serious the party is about the whole issue. She came to Budge Budge, but didn't come to our village," says Mondol. Alternate proposals GBSC members and the villagers suggest that other options, such as solar power generation or relocating the plant to an unpopulated site, be considered.

Some villagers even question the necessity of another plant. Recent Activity. Find all citations in this journal default. Or filter your current search. Communicable Disease Report. Type: Journal Article. Abstract Data from the surveillance scheme of general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales, reported to the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre CDSC , were used to review of the outbreaks identified between 1 January and 31 December for which a minimum data set was captured.

The number of outbreaks reported in each regional health authority ranged from 31 in Mersey to in Yorkshire. Most outbreaks transmitted from person to person occurred in hospitals and in residential institutions for elderly people.